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INTRODUCING BIO DIESEL

Biodiesel is a clean-burning, renewable fuel made from animal or vegetable fats and oils, and alcohol and catalyst; chemical name of the process transformation is called trans-esterification. The fuel properties of biodiesel are very similar to those of petroleum diesel, and biodiesel has the potential to completely replace petroleum diesel in many applications. Biodiesel can be readily integrated into the existing petroleum diesel supply, transportation, and distribution infrastructure. Can be used in power generation with varying blends. Biodiesel can be used in most conventional diesel engines with NO retrofit.

 

The original diesel engine designed by Rudolph Diesel in the 1890's used peanut oil.  Because petroleum products were less expensive, diesel engines were converted to run on petro-diesel by 1900.  However, Diesel had the foresight to state "the use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today, but such oils may become, in the course of time, as important as petroleum and the coal-tar products of the present time."

 

Biodiesel has greater lubricity than petroleum diesel, which reduces engine wear.

Ultra-Low-Sulfur (ULS) Diesel requires an additive to improve its lubricity. Unlike the synthetic lubricity additives currently used, biodiesel is an organic, combustible fuel. With even 2% biodiesel added, fuel burns more efficiently and even improves the efficiency of retrofit technologies like diesel oxidation catalysts and particulate filters by inhibiting the accumulation of ash.

 

Biodiesel is significantly less toxic than petroleum diesel, and is more biodegradable than petro diesel, reducing the negative impacts of spills.

 

Biodiesel is four times as efficient as diesel fuel in utilizing fossil energy.  Biodiesel yields around 3.2 units of fuel for every unit of fossil energy consumed in the lifecycle.  By contrast, petroleum diesels life cycle yields on only 0.83 units of fuel product per unit of fossil energy consumed.

 

In not too distant future, bio diesel will be produced in much larger quantities, and at a much lower cost, from ALGAE. NREL's research showed that one quad (7.5 billion gallons) of bio diesel could be produced from ALGAE grown on 200K hectares of desert land.

 

In USA bio diesel is primarily processed from soybean seeds and to lesser degree from animal fats, WVO. Depending on local availability, bio diesel is primarily produced from canola in Canada & Europe, from palm in South East Asia and few South American countries. Countries like India and several African nations are planning to produce bio diesel from non-edible oil of Jatropha seeds, without adversely impacting the edible oil production and demand. Production has been steadily growing and US production was 225 million gallons for 2006.

 

Because of environmental benefits and production of renewable fuel, incentives like production and tax credits, accelerated deprec. outright grants and guaranteed low cost loans etc are available for production of bio diesel. Industry growth has somewhat slowed during 2007, especially due to quick rise of feedstock price.

 

PDR Assocs Energy group has been working on feasibility, engineering and development of several bio diesel projects both in US and India. Staff of our certified bio diesel engineers and developers supports the clients in developing the project and provide engineering, procurement and financial services.   

 

We have developed, resourced cost effective process of producing with integrated process equipments to produce BQ 9000 certified bio diesel and associated saleable byproducts. Based on process and systems, our dry and/or water wash system for B100 can economize system cost by 40% compared to market.

 

INTRODUCING LAND FILL GAS (LFG) TO ENERGY

Produced from organic waste disposed of in land fills over the years. As the higher layers of wastes mechanically compress on lower layers of waste, LFG is formed through anaerobic digestion process.

 

Depending on many characteristics of the waste like composition, age, rain fall and others, LFG contain methane gas (about 45 to 55%), CO2 (about 55 to 45%) and trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide, oxygen, nitrogen and moisture.

 

Normally a land fill has a piped LFG collection system in place to progressively collect, measure CFM over the years and facilitate atmospheric burning of methane through flaring stations.

 

However, because of high energy value and potential environmental benefits, many of these land fills are being developed into renewable energy projects. They can generate electricity and/or produce pipe quality natural gas. Depending on composition, LFG is filtered, dried/cooled and/or compressed to fire an IC engine, gas turbine, fuel cell to generate electricity and could additionally provide heating

or cooling on highly energy efficient CHP systems. Based on economic and environmental considerations, LFG can also be just cleaned and filtered to be utilized as pipe quality natural gas fuel.

 

Because of environmental and economic benefits and production of renewable energy, generous incentives like production and tax credits, accelerated depreciation, outright grants and guaranteed low cost loans are available when these systems are installed. Because of free fuel, price of energy from LFGE is low & stable. 

 

PDR Assocs Energy group has worked on several LFGE (Land Fill Gas to Energy) projects in Eastern states and provided services like feasibility, engineering, procurements, financial analysis. These plants generally have quick pay back periods like three to four years.  

 

There are a number of makers around the world who developed and are making these specialty and heavy duty equipment systems that are reliable in processing this quite toxic and sub quality fuel into renewable energy source. We have represented few of these system manufacturers and specify based on application.   

 

PDR Assocs Energy Group has worked the technical and economic details to propose a LFGE system to Warren County and provided professional and procurement services in designing and installing LFGE projects for client in New Jersey, Pennsylvania including one municipality in central India.  

 

DAIRY GAS AND DIGESTER GAS FROM WASTE WATER TRTMNT PLANT AS ENERGY SOURCE

Waste management from dairy herds is a growing environmental concern. States are seeking innovative solutions for dairy waste management and new programs for greater development of renewable energy resources.

 

For individual farms, small-scale plug-flow or covered lagoon digesters of simple design can produce biogas for on-site electricity and heat generation. For example, a plug-flow digester could process 8,000 gallons of manure per day, the amount produced by a herd of 500 dairy cows. By using digester gas to fuel an engine-generator, a digester of this size would produce more electricity and hot water than the dairy consumes.

 

Larger scale digesters are suitable for manure volumes of 25,000 to 100,000 gallons per day. In Denmark and in several other European countries, central digester facilities use manure and other organic wastes collected from individual farms and transported to the facility.

 

Myriads of creative and feasible solutions to convert many kinds of wastes into renewable energy:

1)         Turn Kitchen Grease into biogas to fire micro-turbine providing electricity and heat to the existing digester at a Wastewater Treatment Plant. Also Produce bio diesel for diesel engines from kitchen grease has been other application.

2)         Turn coal bed methane into renewable electricity and heat.

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Landfill Gas to Energy Project

PDR Associates Energy Group * 8 Packard Road, Suite 1 * East Brunswick * NJ * 08816
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